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Small, isolated and endogamous populations such as the Travellers are also more prone to the effects of genetic drift.
The isolation and consanguinity have in turn led to an increased prevalence of recessive diseases observed in the Traveller population relative to the settled Irish.
1B), with Traveller 1 (n = 7) and Traveller 2 (n = 5) on the same branch, and Traveller 3 (n = 5) and Traveller 4 (n = 11) on a separate branch.
The branch with clusters Traveller 3 and 4, forms an outgroup to the rest of the settled Irish and Irish Traveller clusters.
We quantify the high levels of autozygosity, which are comparable to levels previously described in Orcadian 1 cousin offspring, and finally show the Irish Traveller population has no particular genetic links to the European Roma.
The levels of autozygosity and distinct Irish origins have implications for disease mapping within Ireland, while the population structure and divergence inform on social history..
These two branches of Irish Traveller clusters align closely with the split of Irish Travellers observed through PCA (Fig. All the individuals who separate on the first principal component (henceforth “PCA group B”) are found in clusters Traveller 3 and 4 (Fig.
Multivariate analysis of genotype data across 12 red blood cell loci in 119 Irish Travellers suggested that the population clustered closely with the settled Irish to the exclusion of the Roma.
Traveller individuals within the Ireland 2 cluster report recent settled ancestry, and we have no such genealogical data on the individual grouped within the Ireland 1 cluster.
Given their mixed ancestry, these individuals were excluded from subsequent F, and divergence estimate work.
However, the extent of autozygosity within the population has yet to be quantified; as a result it is unknown how homozygous the population is compared to other, better-studied, isolated European populations.
Previous work into the genetics of the Irish Traveller population has been conducted on datasets of relatively low genetic resolution.
Other, “Irish Origin”, hypothesised sources of the Irish Travellers include; displacement from times of famine (such as between 1740–1741, or the Great Famine of 1845–1852), or displacement from the time of Cromwellian (1649–53) or the Anglo-Norman conquests (1169 to 1240).